2/1/2023 - Technology and Innovation

Nutritional: A diet according to your DNA

By Valentina Bonina

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About genetic testing

A DNA test (or genetic test) is the study of a person's genes.Mostly, a person may need to perform the test for various reasons, suchhow to know their genetic predisposition to develop certain pathologies,determine their ancestry, identify genetic changes that may becausing or contributing to a pathology already diagnosed, guiding your doctor todecide the best medicine for your pathology, among other very useful things.Genetics play a fundamental and irreplaceable role in eliminatingdiseases incompatible with life or that severely affect the quality of lifehuman life.

The epigenetics

The epigenetic term was introduced in 1942 by the genetist and embryologistConrad H, Waddington to refer to the execution of the phenotype fromPotential instructions of a genotype. Waddington made it clearfollowing: “The information of the genes must go a path to theirexpression, in which readjustments can occur, and what determines differentiationcellular depends on the activity or not of certain genes”.This concept of epigenetics was maintained until advances in geneticsmolecular disveiled the factors of those depending on the expression of genes inthe multi-cellular organisms. According to a theoretical model proposed by Britten andDavidson (1969), in the genome there are several types of genes that interact forselectively control the expression of other genes and the destiny of cellsin development.Therefore, in short, one can say that epigenetics is based onchanges in gene expression, which are due to factorsexternal to the individual (food, environment, among others), and is an area that isIn full study.

Nutrigenetics, a “new medicinal paradigm”

Epigenetics are strongly linked to nutrigenetics, and studiesspecifically an external factor that acts on genetics: The feeding.Nutrigenetics could be of great medicinal importance, as it raises a newfood paradigm through which it is sought to individualize the diets of eachbe human according to your needs and conveniences (which can be checkedin a DNA test). That is, in the feeding frame, through a testgenetics can be diagnosed some pathology such as celiaquía,lactose intolerance, mani allergy, chocolate allergy, among many others.Genetic testing is available in several genetic clinics around the world.

Nutritional genetic testing belonging to the Genetic Center “Jorge Dotto”Jorge Dotto is a genetist doctor and author of several books as “What do we eat?”(2022), “Nutrition and genetics” (2020), among others.In your clinic, with a saliva sample is analyzed the DNA of the person and throughof the nutritional study they offer, determine what type of foodideal.The nutritional genetic kit we can observe in the photo is the one belonging to yourclinical, in which several aspects of the patient's DNA are analyzed: Foodhealthy (overweight, rebound effect, adiponectin in the blood), intolerance andfood allergies (snake risk, flour intolerance, lactose,caffeine metabolism, hypersensitivity to salt, etc.), behaviorfood (snacking or “peaking”, desire for food, food uninhibitionor “emotional saber”, etc.), nutritional needs (genetic risk ofdecreased vitamin A, B1 (thiamin), B2 (riboflavin), B6 (pyridoxine), etc.),metabolic factors of health (risk of type 2 diabetes, hypertension,etc.), among many other factors.Some statements and thanks from their patients were: "Thanks to the genetic test di that had intolerance to histamine and never take an anti-allergic again. I healed forever! Super recommended. The nutritionist team gives you a food plan tailored to your results, a genius. Knowing about our genes is fundamental.We could say that we are close to the arrival of a “new paradigm”medicinal”, because this method is based on nutritional integration to which,future, not only allows predictive and individualized health actions, returningthe well-being of the most effective and safe people, but also will help to improveGeneral public health recommendations.It can then be affirmed that nutrition has a great potential in relation tohealth promotion, prediction, prevention, diagnosis and ittreatment of diseases.However, this technique has the ability to permanently transform thelife of individuals or also be employed inappropriately, due to that aperson, changing their habits, would not only be changing their epigenetics, butAlso modifying the progenitor species.

The importance of good nutrition

Today, nutrition is an indispensable factor in everyday lifesociety, so it is important to deal with it properly.Statistically, in Argentina, most inhabitants do not take afeed according to your genetics or your needs. 60% of adultshave overweight and only 6% of adults consume the quantitiesrecommended for fruits and vegetables;Society needs a change in nutrition; genetic diseases,obesity, anorexia, among other nutritional problems, were elevated after itrun from the years, exponentially. The development of nutrition would be agood solution to this social problem.From Roos, B. & Brennan, L. (2017) indicate that “An increasing number ofIndic studies the need to apply precision nutrition approaches tocustomize the risk of disease and, in parallel, dietary recommendationsfuture”.

The role and importance of social opinion

Formative participation and social opinion is very important. Applicationstechno-scientifics mostly lead society to a state of uncertainty orscientific, technical and social distrust because a certain validity andsafety of scientific results. This fact is fundamental, because it isnecessary for social actors to question the word of scientific actors,to enrich the discussion.Currently, it is attractive to try to foster food choicehealthy through education and information provision. The problem is thatmostly, knowledge alone is usually insufficient to change thesebehaviors and habits.De Roos, B. & Brennan, L. distinguish that the diets adapted to the circumstancesindividual can result more effective.”On these occasions mentioned, the nutrigenetics would be seen as a verygood alternative, where one could change his habits according to hisindividual nutritional needs, without following a strict or incompatible dietwith their bio individuality.

The value of privacy and social decisions

Questions relating to consumer acceptance, the protection of consumersGenetic data privacy as well as product marketing and distributioncustomized should be approached before customized nutrition canbecome commercially viable; governments must ensure that both theemployers as insurance companies use genetic informationHe's responsible and justified. But just like Google, Facebook,Instagram or internet in general store our data, it can be storedUnique and so intimate genetic code of each person... They all want their DNAthat we don't know who could have access?The protection of the genetic data of individuals due to their naturesensitive information, is one of the most important areas for ethical reflection andthe legal development, given the latent risks of reductionism, determinism andgenetic discrimination. Regulations of different countriesGenetic information, a different statute of protection in relation to other datamedical or health in the clinical history of the patient (Córdoba, A., 2011).In addition to concerns about the storage of genetic data, it islikely that consumers are also afraid of the test results, itthat can lead to the incessant search for scientific knowledge to concludethose uncertainties or fears, thus generating scientific responses togenetic problems due to lack of information.Personalised nutrition will only contribute to quality of life if consumersaccept to carry out the test and are motivated to follow the recommendationsabout food intake. This motivation to change the diet isconditioned by belief in one's ability and if that change will achieve theexpected result.Not everyone would agree to perform a genetic test due touncertainties, fears, data privacy issues and lack of information toHow much. The key would be to reach a balance between scientific development in favour ofhuman health and protection of associated individual and collective rightsto the treatment of genetic information. At the time of promotingmassively this technique, freedom of social expression should be total and itscientific field would have to hear these uncertainties, as should be to takeGood development.

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valentina bonina

Valentina Bonina

Hello, my name is Valentina Bonina! I am 20 years old and I am currently studying Biotechnology at the National University of San Martín. In recent years I performed an internship in the documentation area in the mAbxience laboratory, and participated as a volunteer in a biotechnological project of another company.

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